Stream and Ponds
Trees & Shrubs
TREE and SHRUB ESTABLISHMENT
Practice Standard: TREE & SHRUB PLANTING-612
NAME: Wild Thyme Farm
Farm#: 1114 Tract#: 1571 Field: 1 Acres: 5.5 Soil: Chehalis Silt Loam
Method of seedbed preparation to remove plant competition: Hygro-Tiller
Date of planting: March-April 2001
Type of planting equipment : Shovel plant bare root stock and bar plant cuttings.
Tree species recommended; Red alder, black cottonwood, big leaf maple, Oregon ash, hazelnut, golden chain, black walnut, western red cedar and some Douglas fir.
Shrub species: Red osier dogwood and willow.
Tree Seed Zone: 430 Elevation: 100 feet Avg. Annual Rainfall: 60 in.
All trees and shrubs should be ordered in the fall for spring delivery. Bare rootstock will be planted no deeper than the nursery collar and covered with firm backfill to the nursery collar. Roots will be kept moist during planting, and placed in the ground to avoid "J rooting". Plant material will be kept dark and cool (above freezing/below 40 degrees Fahrenheit) during storage.
Management of permanent cover: Protect the plant community from destructive disease, fire and mechanical damage. However, incidental mortality, and variable vigor in individual plants is expected and often healthy for the overall community. Encourage diversity of native species throughout the life of the contract.
Other (weed control, fertilizer, etc): All noxious weeds on the Grays Harbor County noxious weed control list will be controlled as per requirements of the Grays Harbor County Weed Control Board and as necessary to ensure establishment of the CRP plant community. After about the third growing season the plantation should be evaluated for the need to manage vegetation that competes with tree seedlings for light. Specific herbicide or mechanical treatment can be prescribed at the time of evaluation.
WTF Riparian Agroforestry Planting Plan
Summary of Planting Plan:
This site comprises 5.5 acres of the riparian zone adjacent to Gerrard Creek, a tributary to the Chehalis River. The site averages 60" of annual rainfall. The soil-type is Chehalis Silt loam and is characterized as a very deep, well-drained soil. Permeability of this Chehalis soil is moderate. Available water capacity is high. Effective rooting depth is 60 inches or more. Runoff is slow, and the hazard of water erosion is slight. This soil is subject to occasional brief periods of flooding in winter.
This plan involves a mix of trees including native hardwoods, native conifers and a variety of non-native high-value hardwood timber species. The objectives of the planting plan are to restore the functional processes of a riparian forest relative to the existing channel type, provide a long-term supply of timber and non-timber forest products to the current and succeeding land owners and to set the stage for the eventual succession of the site to an old-growth ecosystem.
The primary features of this plan include: a diverse livestock-proof hedgerow, black walnut plantation, native riparian corridor, and native hardwood timber plantations.
Special considerations for this site include: design for flooding, design for beaver predation, and management of noxious weeds including reed canary grass, Himalayan blackberry and Canadian thistle.
A brief description of each plot follows:
Plot #1: Populus trichocarpa
* 200 P. trichocarpa
* 25 Picea sitchensis
* 25 Thuja plicata
Plant Cottonwood on 10 centers. Along solar edge interplant Spruce in first row and Cedar in second row every 20.
Plot #2: Populus trichocarpa/Alnus rubra
* 188 P. trichocarpa
* 62 A. rubra
Interplant on a 1:4 ratio (Alder:Cottonwood) in checkerboard fashion on 10 centers
Plot #3: Populus trichocarpa/Alnus rubra/mixed conifers
* 95 P. trichocarpa
* 95 A. rubra
* 15 T. plicata
* 15 P. sitchensis
* 15 Tsuga heterophylla
* 15 Pseudotsuga menziesii
Interplant cottonwoods and alder proportionally equal on 10 centers. Interplant conifers equally on a 1:4 ratio (conifer:alder/cottonwood). Plant spruce and Doug-fir to solar edges and cedar and hemlock internally.
Plot #4: Alnus rubra/Fraxinus latifolia
* 420 F. latifolia
* 155 A. rubra
* 50 P. sitchensis
Interplant alder and ash on a 1:4 ratio (alder:ash) on 10 centers. Interplant spruce every 20 along first row on solar ed
Plot #5: Native Riparian Zone
* 665 Salix spp.
* 220 Cornus stolonifera
Interplant willow and red-osier dogwood on a 4:1 ratio (willow:dogwood) on 6-8 centers. Use riparian zone as "dump" for extra native plants leftover from other plots.
Plot #6: Native Useful Plants
* 45 Prunus emarginata
* 45 Malus fusca
* 45 Corylus cornuta
* 45 Crataegus douglassi
* 25 Golden Chain
Plant in rows on contour on 8 centers. Arrange species by height relative to solar aspect
Plot #7: Hedgerow
.24 acres total
.12 acres planted
* 215 Craetagus douglassi
* 200 Rosa nutkana
* 35 Golden Chain (on 25 centers)
* 10 Juglans regia (on 50centers)
* 10 Castanea Americana (on 50 centers)
* 10 Quercus garyana (on 50 centers)
* 10 Carpinus betulus (on 25 centers)
* 10 Ulmus procera (on 50 centers)
Plant hawthorn on 4 centers. Interplant rose with hawthorn. Space other hardwoods evenly along hedge.
Plot #8: High-Value Timber
* 188 Juglans nigra
* 62 Golden Chain
Interplant walnut and Golden chain on a 4:1 ratio respectively on contour on 10 centers.
JOB SHEET - TREE and SHRUB PLANTING
1. Planting Date:
* Trees/shrubs should be planted when the plants are dormant and soil is not frozen.
* Avoid fall planting where frost heaving could be a problem.
* For optimum survival, plantings should occur when weather is cool and damp with little to no wind to keep plant roots from drying.
2. Planting Stock:
* Obtain stock from a verified source. Stock should be adapted to the climate and elevation of the area of your planting.
* Minimum planting stock should be 1-1 and older stock should be used when plant competition is high.
* Upon arrival of stock, care should be exercised to enhance survival.
1. When plants arrive the roots cannot be allowed to dry out (10 seconds or less is all that is needed to cause root damage and increased mortality).
2. Stock should be stored in a cool, moist place until planted and roots should be treated with commercial root protectants or kept moist with water and wrapped with burlap or other suitable moisture retaining barrier.
3. If planting will be delayed for an extended amount of time, seedlings may be "healed in" by digging a trench, placing the seedlings in the trench and covering with soil.
3. Planting Method:
* A 3 ft. x 3 ft. area should be scalped prior to planting to remove competition from around the plant.
* Plant trees/shrubs in clumps (of the same species) rather that rows when using a limited amount of stock.
* Use "Arbor Guards" on all planting stock that is prone to rodent damage.
* Use "Bud Caps or Repellent" on all planting stock prone to browse by deer.
* Encourage predators of rodents by erecting raptor roosts and allowing predator access to CRP land.
* Use "Shade Cards on all evergreens and place on the side of the plant to avoid afternoon sun.
* Keep roots straight when planting to avoid "J" rooting.
* Keep the root crown at ground level when planting.
* Tamp soil around plant after planting to remove air pockets and provide adequate root to soil contact.